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ABO Incompatibility

ABO Incompatibility is a fairly common and milder type of hemolytic disease of the newborn, and is caused by the result of an immune system reaction. Rh Incompatibility, another hemolytic disease of the newborn, is associated with poorer fetal outcomes. ABO incompatibility occurs when blood from two different – and incomparable – types of blood are mixed together.

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An abortion is a very common medical procedure that uses various methods to end an established pregnancy before birth, generally within the first twelve weeks of gestation. A medical abortion may be performed in a doctor’s office or at home. 

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Achondroplasia is a type of short-limbed dwarfism. The word “achondroplasia” actually means “without cartilage formation.” Cartilage is a tough but flexible tissue that comprises most of the skeleton during early development. However, in achondroplasia the problem is that the cartilage has problems turning to bone (ossification) particularly in the long bones of the arms and legs.

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Acyanotic Heart Defects

Acyanotic heart defects are heart problems that develop before or at birth but do not normally interfere with the amount of oxygen or blood that reaches the body’s tissues. Acyanotic heart defects include ventricular septal defect (VSD), atrial septal defect (ASD), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), pulmonary valve stenosis, aortic valve stenosis, and coarctation of the aorta.

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Addison's Disease

Addison’s disease (also called chronic adrenal insufficiency, hypocortisolism, and hypoadrenalism) is a very rare endocrine disorder that occurs when the adrenal glands are damaged and do not function properly.

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Cancer is not a single disease. It is the general name for a group of more than 100 diseases in which cells in a part of the body begin to proliferate, or grow, wildly and invade other cells, which is something that normal cells are unable to do.

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Caregivers are unpaid workers who devote themselves to the care a chronically ill or disabled person. 

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Chiari Malformation

Chiari Malformation is a disorder of the brain affecting at least 1 out of every 1000 people in the world. In the simplest terms, it is a condition where the cerebellum (the bottom part of the brain) squeezes out into the spinal canal.

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Infectious Diseases

Infectious diseases (also known as transmissible diseases or communicable diseases) are clinically evident illnesses caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites that can be spread – directly or indirectly – from one vector to another.

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Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after one year of trying (or six months if a woman is 35 or older). Women who can get pregnant but are unable to stay pregnant may also be infertile.

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Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD)

Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is a very rare genetic metabolic disorder that is usually diagnosed in newborn infants characterized by deficiency of certain enzymes (branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex) required to break down (metabolize) the three branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) [Leucine, Isoleucine and Valine] in the body. The result of this metabolic failure is that all three BCAAs, along with their various byproducts, accumulate abnormally throughout the body.

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Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis is a disease that causes an immune-mediated process that leads to an abnormal response by the body’s immune system that eventually damages the CNS – or central nervous system.

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Pain Management

The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) defines pain as: An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage.

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Health Information Hotlines:

AIDS/HIV Treatment, Prevention, and Research:

  • 1800-HIV-0440*


  • *1 800-222-2225* and 1800-222-4225* (TTY)

Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism:

  • 1-301-443-3860

Allergy and Infectious Diseases:

  • 1-866-284-4107

Alzheimer’s Disease:

  • 1-800-438-4380
  • 1-800-222-4225* (TTY)

Arthritis, Musculoskeletal, and Skin Diseases:

  • 1-877-22-NIAMS*
  • 1-877-226-4267*
  • 1-301-495-4484
  • 1-301-565-2966 (TTY)

Safe to Sleep: Reduce the Risk of SIDS and Other Sleep-Related Causes of Infant Death:

  • 1-800-505-CRIB
  • 1-800-505-2742

Basic Research on Cells, Proteins, and Genes:

  • 1-301-496-7301

Bladder Control for Women:

  • 1-800-860-8747

Bowel Control:

  • 1-800-860-8747


  • 1-800-4-CANCER
  • 1-800-422-6237*

Child Health and Human Development:

  • 1-800-370-2943
  • 1-888-320-6942* (TTY)

Clinical Center Patient Recruitment:

  • 1-800-411-1222
  • 1-866-411-1010*(TTY)

Clinical Research Volunteer Program:

  • 1-301-496-4763

Complementary and Alternative Medicine:

  • 1-888-644-6226
  • 1-866-464-3615* (Voice/TTY)

Deafness and Other Communication Disorders:

  • 1-800-241-1044
  • 1-800-241-1055* (TTD/TTY)


  • 1-800-860-8747

Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders:

  • 1-800-860-8747

Drug Abuse and Addiction :

  • 1-877-NIDA-NIH (643-2644)
  • 1-877-643-2644
  • 1-240-645-0228 (TDD)

Environmental Causes of Disease:

  • 919-541-3345

eRA Commons Help Desk:

  • 1-866-504-9552
  • 1-301-402-7469
  • 1-301-451-5936 (TTY)

Eye Diseases:

  • 1-301-496-5248

Extramural Research Grants:

  • 1-301-435-0714
  • 1-888-205-2311

Global Health:

  • 1-301-496-2075

Contact Awarding Institute/Center for Specific Grant/Award Questions:

  • 1-301-435-0714
  • 1-301-451-5936 (TTY)

Heart, Lung, and Blood:

  • 1-301-592-8573
  • 1-240-629-3255 (TTY)

Human Genome Research:

  • 1-301-402-0911

National Kidney Disease Education Program:

  • 1-800-860-8747*

Kidney and Urologic Diseases:

  • 1-800-860-8747

Mental Health and Mental Illness:

  • 1-301-443-4513
  • 1-301-443-8431 (TTY)
  • 1-866-615-NIMH (6464)
  • 1-866-415-8051

National Library of Medicine:

  • 1-888-346-3656

Network of Libraries of Medicine:

  • 1-800-338-7657

Neurological Disorders:

  • 1-800-352-9424

Nursing Research:

  • 1-301-496-0207

Oral Health:

  • 1-301-402-7364
  • 1-866-232-4528

Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases:

  • 1-800-624-BONE
  • 1-800-624-2663
  • 1-202-223-0344
  • 1-202-466-4315 (TTY)

Patient Recruitment and Public Liaison Office:

  • 1-800-411-1222
  • 1-866-411-1010(TTY)

Schizophrenia Research:

  • 1-888-674-6464

Smoking Cessation, NCI’s Smoking Quitline:

  • 1-877-44U-QUIT
  • 1-877-448-7848


  • 1-800-352-9424

WE CAN (Ways to Enhance Children’s Activity and Nutrition):

  • 1-866-35-WE-CAN

Weight Control:

  • 1-800-860-8747

Office of Research on Women’s Health, NI:

  • 1-301-402-1770

Office of Women’s Health, Department of Health and Human Services:

    • 1-800-994-9662
    • 1-888-220-5446 (TTD)

Page last curated 6/2018 BSH