ABO Incompatibility is a fairly common and milder type of hemolytic disease of the newborn, and is caused by the result of an immune system reaction. Rh Incompatibility, another hemolytic disease of the newborn, is associated with poorer fetal outcomes. ABO incompatibility occurs when blood from two different – and incomparable – types of blood are mixed together.
Achondroplasia is a type of short-limbed dwarfism. The word “achondroplasia” actually means “without cartilage formation.” Cartilage is a tough but flexible tissue that comprises most of the skeleton during early development. However, in achondroplasia the problem is that the cartilage has problems turning to bone (ossification) particularly in the long bones of the arms and legs.
Acyanotic Heart Defects
Acyanotic heart defects are heart problems that develop before or at birth but do not normally interfere with the amount of oxygen or blood that reaches the body’s tissues. Acyanotic heart defects include ventricular septal defect (VSD), atrial septal defect (ASD), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), pulmonary valve stenosis, aortic valve stenosis, and coarctation of the aorta.
Addison’s disease (also called chronic adrenal insufficiency, hypocortisolism, and hypoadrenalism) is a very rare endocrine disorder that occurs when the adrenal glands are damaged and do not function properly.
Cancer is not a single disease. It is the general name for a group of more than 100 diseases in which cells in a part of the body begin to proliferate, or grow, wildly and invade other cells, which is something that normal cells are unable to do.
Caregivers are unpaid workers who devote themselves to the care a chronically ill or disabled person.
Chiari Malformation is a disorder of the brain affecting at least 1 out of every 1000 people in the world. In the simplest terms, it is a condition where the cerebellum (the bottom part of the brain) squeezes out into the spinal canal.
Infectious diseases (also known as transmissible diseases or communicable diseases) are clinically evident illnesses caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites that can be spread – directly or indirectly – from one vector to another.
Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after one year of trying (or six months if a woman is 35 or older). Women who can get pregnant but are unable to stay pregnant may also be infertile.
Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD)
Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is a very rare genetic metabolic disorder that is usually diagnosed in newborn infants characterized by deficiency of certain enzymes (branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex) required to break down (metabolize) the three branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) [Leucine, Isoleucine and Valine] in the body. The result of this metabolic failure is that all three BCAAs, along with their various byproducts, accumulate abnormally throughout the body.
Multiple sclerosis is a disease that causes an immune-mediated process that leads to an abnormal response by the body’s immune system that eventually damages the CNS – or central nervous system.
The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) defines pain as: An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage.
Health Information Hotlines:
AIDS/HIV Treatment, Prevention and Research:
- *1 800-222-2225* and 1800-222-4225* (TTY)
Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism:
Allergy and Infectious Diseases:
- 1-800-222-4225* (TTY)
Arthritis, Musculoskeletal, and Skin Diseases:
- 1-301-565-2966 (TTY)
Safe to Sleep: Reduce the Risk of SIDS and Other Sleep-Related Causes of Infant Death:
Basic Research on Cells, Proteins, and Genes:
Bladder Control for Women:
Child Health and Human Development:
- 1-888-320-6942* (TTY)
Clinical Center Patient Recruitment:
Clinical Research Volunteer Program:
Complementary and Alternative Medicine:
- 1-866-464-3615* (Voice/TTY)
Deafness and Other Communication Disorders:
- 1-800-241-1055* (TTD/TTY)
Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders:
Drug Abuse and Addiction :
- 1-877-NIDA-NIH (643-2644)
- 1-240-645-0228 (TDD)
Environmental Causes of Disease:
eRA Commons Help Desk:
- 1-301-451-5936 (TTY)
Extramural Research Grants:
Contact Awarding Institute/Center for Specific Grant/Award Questions:
- 1-301-451-5936 (TTY)
Heart, Lung, and Blood:
- 1-240-629-3255 (TTY)
Human Genome Research:
National Kidney Disease Education Program:
Kidney and Urologic Diseases:
Mental Health and Mental Illness:
- 1-301-443-8431 (TTY)
- 1-866-615-NIMH (6464)
National Library of Medicine:
Network of Libraries of Medicine:
Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases:
- 1-202-466-4315 (TTY)
Patient Recruitment and Public Liaison Office:
Smoking Cessation, NCI’s Smoking Quitline:
WE CAN (Ways to Enhance Children’s Activity and Nutrition):
Office of Research on Women’s Health, NI:
Office of Women’s Health, Department of Health and Human Services:
- 1-888-220-5446 (TTD)
Page last curated 6/2018 BSH